[151] At Williams Island the crew encountered a polar bear for the first time. Ovando appointed a "chronicler and cosmographer of the Indies," Juan López de Velasco, to gather information about the crown's holdings, which resulted in the Relaciones geográficas in the 1580s.[111]. A leading Spanish politician emphatically declared: "We are at the most acute period of Spanish decadence". The Europeans had many advantages over the natives. [citation needed], One of the features of this trade was the exchange of a great array of domesticated plants and animals between the Old World and the New in the Columbian Exchange. [citation needed] The close Italian links to the Levant raised great curiosity and commercial interest in countries which lay further east. The Spanish expeditions into the Philippines were also part of a larger Ibero-Islamic world conflict[132] that included a rivalry with the Ottoman Caliphate, which had a center of operations at its nearby vassal, the Sultanate of Aceh. In the 17th century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply. In 1931, following the fall of the monarchy, the African colonies became part of the Second Spanish Republic. Subsequently, a cortes or parliament was called, with representatives not only from Spain, but also Spanish America and the Philippines. Kraak porcelain (believed to be named after the Portuguese carracks in which it was transported) was among the first Chinese ware to arrive in Europe in mass quantities. 15th Century Mariners. Conquest and evangelization were inseparable in Spanish America. With over 470 million native speakers today, Spanish is the second most spoken native language in the world, as result of the introduction of the language of Castile—Castilian, "Castellano" —from Iberia to Spanish America, later expanded by the governments of successor independent republics. Jamaica was the last British stronghold of importance in the Caribbean. The Spanish Empire benefited from favorable factor endowments in its overseas possessions with their large, exploitable, indigenous populations and rich mining areas. This seems controversial, since he changed part of his description in the subsequent letter, stating a shift, from about 32° S (Southern Brazil), to south-southeast, to open sea; maintaining, however, that they reached 50°/52° S (if it was by his own decision or by D. Manuel's censors who had to pressure him to alter his account, because he had revealed far too much to Lorenzo de' Medici and into the public domain, is unknown).[95][96]. Also gives the first news of the White King and the "people of the mountains" to the interior (the Inca Empire), and a gift, an ax of silver, obtained from the Charrúa natives on their return ("to the coast or side of Brazil"), and "to West" (along the coast and the River Plate estuary), and offered to King Manuel I. Others suspect Duarte Pacheco Pereira secretly discovered Brazil in 1498, but this is not considered credible by mainstream historians. [20] The crown then established viceroyalties in the two main areas of settlement, Mexico and Peru, both regions of dense indigenous populations and mineral wealth. Shipping grew rapidly from the mid-1740s until the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), reflecting in part the success of the Bourbons in bringing illicit trade under control. [119] One Spaniard described the climate as "cuatro meses de polvo, cuatro meses de lodo, y cuatro meses de todo" (four months of dust, four months of mud, and four months of everything). Of the men who set out on five ships, only 18 completed the circumnavigation and managed to return to Spain in this single vessel led by Elcano. He intended to sail to the East Indies, but near the Cape of Good Hope his ship was diverted to west by a storm, and landed in the present day state of Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), on 5 January 1504. Ferdinand Magellan—who had sailed in India for Portugal up to 1513, when the Maluku Islands were reached, kept contact with Francisco Serrão living there[109][110]—developed the theory that the islands were in the Tordesillas Spanish area, supported on studies by Faleiro brothers. W, H The Great Age of Exploration (1400-1550) : Students will watch the video on Exploration (29.56). [126] But he soon learned that his men on the coast had been attacked, and decided to hostage Moctezuma in his palace, demanding a ransom as tribute to King Charles. The merchants also used the opportunity to engage in contraband trade of their manufactured goods. In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. When these territories reach a high level of importance, the crown established the Council of the Indies in 1524, following the conquest of the Aztec empire, asserting permanent royal control over its possessions. On the evening of 3 August 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships; one larger carrack, Santa María, nicknamed Gallega (the Galician), and two smaller caravels, Pinta (the Painted) and Santa Clara, nicknamed Niña. On November 18, 1605, the Duyfken sailed from Bantam to the coast of western New Guinea. The ensuing breakdown of authority and people's livelihoods allowed rebel leaders such as Li Zicheng to challenge Ming authority. Expeditions left to conquer these states agreement, accepting all of the Inca state was and. 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