Ultramafic metamorphic rocks result from the metamorphism of mantle rocks and some oceanic crust and contain dominantly magnesium, silicon, and carbon dioxide, with smaller amounts of iron, calcium, and aluminum. This is an order showing increased silica content. Download : Download high-res image (353KB)Download : Download full-size image. 9d). These are discussed in other sections of this report. • Silica is the most abundant material found in igneous rocks. These rocks are rare on the Earth's surface and contain low amounts of silica the minerals olivine, plagioclase feldspars and pyroxene. *:As a whole, rocks of this type are referred to as. Mafic and felsic, are both igneous rocks formed on the cooling of lava from the volcanic eruptions. Mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions occur at all levels within the crust, from depths in excess of 50 km (160,000 ft) to depths of as little as 1.5–5 km (5,000–16,000 ft). In geology, mafic is a term which describes an igneous rock or a silicate mineral rich in iron and magnesium. The depth at which an intrusion is formed is dependent on several factors: Density of the melt. Igneous rocks are classified according to their mineral content: Ultramafic rocks are dominated by olivine and/or pyroxene. What is felsic vs mafic vs ultramafic? is that ultramafic is (geology) describing igneous rocks that contain magnesium and iron and only a very small amount of silica, such as are found in the earth’s mantle while mafic is (geology) describing rocks, such as silicate minerals, magmas, and volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks, which contain relatively high concentrations of magnesium and iron. An igneous rock with a very low silica content and rich in minerals such as hypersthene, augite, and olivine.These rocks are also known as ultrabasic rocks. Examples include: peridotite, kimberlite, lamprophyre, lamproite, dunite, and … Mafic rocks genetically related to N-MORB, E-MORB and IAT. Interfaces within the crust. 2. Common mafic rocks include basalt and gabbro. The ultramafic rocks exhibit two distinct patterns both in spidergrams and in REE plots. The basalts are characterized by 44.1–45.6 wt.% of SiO2 with 28–38 of Mg#, and the gabbros by 38.7–43.7 wt.% of SiO2, and 26–79 of Mg#. property plots of p-wave velocity vs magnetic and dry bulk density vs magnetic susceptibility, i.e. ‘Variably serpentinized Devonian mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks occur in the western and northern parts of the map area.’ More example sentences ‘A major source of iron, called iron laterite, is a type of residual deposit generated by the intense weathering of iron-rich rocks such as mafic and ultramafic … Ultramafic rocks are dominated by olivine and/or pyroxene. augite (a pyroxene): another black, mafic mineral. In the REE plot, one group displays steeper slopes [(La/Yb)N = 4.340–4.341], whereas the other displays moderate to flat slopes [(La/Yb)N = 0.97–1.67] and negative Eu-anomalies. Data points are sized according to increasing apparent porosity. Igneous rocks, characterized by their silica content can be put in two categories: mafic and felsic (other two categories being ultramafic and intermediate). Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; (geology) Describing igneous rocks that contain magnesium and iron and only a very small amount of silica, such as are found in the Earth’s mantle. The ultramafic intrusives include the dunites, peridotites and pyroxenites. Mafic-ultramafic mineral systems can also involve laterites, as well as hydrothermal and placer deposits. Due to the color of the minerals forming them, the rocks are either light or dark. The ultramafic rocks are characterized by 37.4–52.2 wt.% of SiO2, and 80–88 of Mg#. 6. Other rare varieties include troctolite which has a greater percentage of calcic plagioclase. Such cumulate rock types do not represent the chemistry of the magma from which they crystallized. As adjectives the difference between ultramafic and felsic is that ultramafic is (geology) describing igneous rocks that contain magnesium and iron and only a very small amount of silica, such as are found in the earth’s mantle while felsic is (mineralogy) enriched in the lighter elements such as silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The first pattern, represented by light REE (LREE) depletion, suggests N-MORB features and can be interpreted as a signature of Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust. Typically, a horizontal detachment zone, a dense, impermeable layer or even a lithological interface may provide a horizontal … Geochemically, the basalts and gabbros are sub-alkaline to alkaline and show tholeiitic features. The gabbros are characterized by medium to coarse grained plagioclase, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with ophitic to sub-ophitic textures. The basalts are mainly composed of fine grained plagioclase feldspar, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene and show quenching and variolitic textures. Mafic magmas are usually produced at spreading centers, and represent material which is newly differentiated from the upper mantle. As ultramafic magmas encounter the felsic rocks of the continental crust, they cause the most felsic minerals in those felsic rocks (the ones with the lowest melting point) to melt. Andesitic Magma. Magnetic susceptibility is … Master these essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time. In the spidergram, one group displays highly enriched pattern, whereas the other group shows near flat pattern compared to primordial mantle. Mafic rocks show basaltic-subalkaline to alkaline nature. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Most geology students know what a basalt or gabbro is, but occasionally even introductory texts will refer to different mafic rocks and ultramafic rocks. Data are from studied ultramafic and mafic rocks, and coloured according to Q. The second pattern, represented by LREE enrichment with negligible negative Eu anomaly, conforms to E-MORB, and may be related to an arc tectonic setting. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. (Please note that some geologists with questionable motives switch the order of the magnesium and iron and come up with the term "femag." Thus, felsic material is added to the magma as mafic material is lost to fractional crystalization. Arranged by way of increasing silica content, igneous rocks can be described as being ultramafic, mafic, intermediate, and felsic. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Geochemical characteristics of mafic and ultramafic rocks from the Naga Hills Ophiolite, India: Implications for petrogenesis. The temperature of cooling igneous rock creates a difference in the texture of the rock. In multi-element diagrams (spidergrams) both basalts and gabbros show fractionated trends with strong negative anomalies of Zr, Nb, Sr and a gentle negative anomaly of P. However, the rare earth element (REE) plots of the basalts and gabbros show two distinct patterns. Ultrabasic is a more inclusive term that includes igneous rocks with low silica content that may not be extremely enriched in … The Earth's mantleis composed of ultramafic rocks. Within the IUGS classification of igneous rocks, rocks that contain more than 90% of mafic minerals are called ultramafic rocks (there are no "mafic rocks"). Peer-review under responsibility of China University of Geosciences (Beijing). Density of the melt. (geology) Describing rocks, such as silicate minerals, magmas, and volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks, which contain relatively high concentrations of magnesium and iron. Intrusive ultramafic rocks are often found in large, layered ultramafic intrusions where differentiated rock types often occur in layers. Mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions occur at all levels within the crust, from depths in excess of 50km to depths of as little as 1.5 to 5km. Therefore, rocks are divided into ultramafic, mafic, intermediate, and felsic. The depth at which an intrusion is formed is dependent on several factors: 1. Cortney September 3, 2014 Science & Technology + geology, igneous, mafic, rocks, ultramafic. Our study suggests that the ultramafic rocks represent two possible mantle sources (fertile and refractory). Conclusion Felsic and mafic rocks, division of igneous rocks on the basis of their silica content. 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