After entering the market on 18 April 1988 with Air France, Airbus then expanded the A320 family rapidly, launching the 185-seat A321 in 1989 and first delivered it in 1994; launching the 124-seat A319 in 1993 and delivering it in 1996; and launching the 107-seat A318 in 1999 with first deliveries in 2003.[73]. Previously, Hawker Siddeley had produced a design called the HS.134 "Airbus" in 1965, an evolution of the HS.121 (formerly DH.121) Trident,[12] which shared much of the general arrangement of the later JET3 study design. From late 2015, Emirates started operating planes seating 615 passengers in two classes for the Copenhagen route, the most ever seen, replacing the smaller Boeing 777. The A320 is one aircraft in four sizes (A318, A319, A320 and A321), representing the most successful and versatile jetliner family ever. [70] In 1988, the flight management computer contained six Intel 80286 CPUs, running in three logical pairs, with 2.5 megabytes of memory. [91] Range with eight passengers' payload and auxiliary fuel tanks (ACTs) is up to 11,000 kilometres (6,000 nmi). Re-engined with CFM International LEAP-1A or Pratt & Whitney PW1000G engines and with large sharklets, it should be 15% more fuel efficient. It is the largest commercial aircraft certified by the European Aviation Safety Agency for steep approach operations, allowing flights at airports such as London City Airport. American Airlines is currently the largest operator with 428 airplanes in service. Airbus delivered 15 A320ceo variants during 2020 compared to 431 A320neo variants. [50] The second type of winglet incorporated a more blended design and was designed by Winglet Technology, a company based in Wichita, Kansas. The A320 series has two variants, the A320-100 and A320-200. Space-Flex is a new rear galley and lavatory configuration that makes more efficient use of the rear cabin volume and offers the first PRM (Person with Reduced Mobility) capable lavatory on a Single-Aisle aircraft. [112] Through 2015, the Airbus A320 family has experienced 0.12 fatal hull-loss accidents for every million takeoffs and 0.26 total hull-loss accidents for every million takeoffs. [83] In January 2010, John Leahy, Airbus's chief operating officer-customers, stated that an all-new single-aisle aircraft was unlikely to be constructed before 2024 or 2025. The design is a "shrink" with its origins in the 130- to 140-seat SA1, part of the Single-Aisle studies. This A320 has 180 seats in a one-class configuration. Final assembly of the first A319 began on 23 March 1995[16] and it was first introduced with Swissair in April 1996. Final assembly takes place in Toulouse in France; Hamburg in Germany; Tianjin in China since 2009; and in Mobile, Alabama in the United States since April 2016. These include the main displays and the backup artificial horizon, which was previously an analog display. [8] A 10th variation, conceived in 1973, later the first to be constructed, was designated the A300B10. Costing $2 billion (€1.85 billion) to develop, aircraft production was to take place in China. The Toulouse Blagnac final assembly line builds A320s, whereas the Hamburg Finkenwerder final assembly line builds A318s, A319s, and A321s. [33], Airbus began offering the new model from 22 May 1992, with the actual launch of the $275 million (€250 million) programme occurring on 10 June 1993;[31][11][8] the A319's first customer was ILFC, who signed for six aircraft. The outcome of that, the A320neo, didn’t take its first flight until 2014, entering service with Lufthansa a decade later in 2016. [82] The follow-on aircraft to replace the A320 was named A30X. The A319CJ (rebranded ACJ319) is the corporate jet version of the A319. [76], Data through end of December 2020. An ACJ serves as a presidential or official aircraft of Armenia,[94] Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy,[95] Malaysia, Slovakia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Venezuela. [11], Simultaneously, Airbus was developing Airbus A318. The aircraft seats up to 39 passengers, but may be outfitted by the customers into any configuration. [96], On 17 June 2015 ST Aerospace signed agreements with Airbus and EFW for a collaboration to launch the A320/A321 passenger-to-freighter (P2F) conversion programme. From the moment of formation, Airbus had begun studies into derivatives of the Airbus A300B in support of this long-term goal. [11] The single-aisle programme created divisions within Airbus about whether to design a shorter-range twinjet rather than a longer-range quadjet wanted by the West Germans, particularly Lufthansa. For the first time, Airbus entered the bond market, through which it raised $480 million (€475 million) to finance development costs. The second production line was located at Hamburg, which would also subsequently produce the smaller Airbus A319 and A318. [45] To that end, it adopted composite primary structures, centre-of-gravity control using fuel, glass cockpit (EFIS) and a two-crew flight deck. A320 Family cabin layout optimisation solutions, resulting in a set of enablers that add seats without reducing comfort. Flying a GoAir Airbus A320 soon? Get the best seat possible with our Air Arabia A320 seating chart and traveler seat reviews. [54] The 2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in) tall devices are manufactured by Korean Air Aerospace Division. In December 2010, Airbus announced the re-engined A320neo (new engine option), which entered service with Lufthansa in January 2016. [46], In 2006, Airbus started the A320 Enhanced (A320E) programme as a series of improvements targeting a 4–5% efficiency gain with large winglets (2%), aerodynamic refinements (1%), weight savings and a new aircraft cabin. [66] Digital head-up displays are available. The A320 is 37.6 m (123 ft) long and can accommodate 150 to 186 passengers. Its wing is long and thin, offering better aerodynamic efficiency because of the higher aspect ratio than the competing 737 and MD-80. Up to 150 seats can be configured within the Airbus A320 cabin, and the aircraft can travel 5,280 nm. The A320neo (neo for new engine option) is a development launched on 1 December 2010, it made its first flight on 25 September 2014 and it was introduced by Lufthansa on 25 January 2016. Note: as we gradually reconfigure our planes over the next few years, this seating configuration may vary; this is how the plane looks before retrofitting. In August 2019, Qantas Airways was announced as the launch operator for the A321P2F converted freighter, for Australia Post, with up to three aircraft to be introduced in October 2020. [111] The press and media later questioned the fly-by-wire flight control system, but subsequent investigations by commission of inquiry found "no malfunction of the aircraft or its equipment which could have contributed towards a reduction in safety or an increase in the crew's workload during the final flight phase ... the response of the engines was normal and in compliance with certification requirement. A 150-seat A320 burns 11,608 kg (25,591 lb) of jet fuel over 3,984 km (2,151 nmi) (between Los Angeles and New York City), or 2.43 L/100 km (97 mpg‑US) per seat with a 0.8 kg/L fuel. [10] The programme was later transferred to Airbus, leading up to the creation of the Single-Aisle (SA) studies in 1980, led by former leader of JET programme, Derek Brown. [39], As Airbus targets a 60 monthly global production rate by mid-2019, the Tianjin line delivered 51 in 2016 and it could assemble six per month from four as it starts producing A320neos in 2017; 147 Airbus were delivered in 2016 in China, 20% of its production, mostly A320-family, a 47% market share as the country should become the world's largest market ahead of the US before 2027. ", "Prices of New A320s Hardly Changed in 20 Years", "Type certificate data sheet No. [24], The first derivative of the A320 was the Airbus A321, also known as the Stretched A320, A320-500 and A325. [11] The shrink was achieved through the removal of four fuselage frames fore and three aft of the wing, cutting the overall length by 3.73 metres (12 ft 3 in). The first of Lufthansa's V2500-A5-powered A321s arrived on 27 January 1994, while Alitalia received its first CFM56-5B-powered aircraft on 22 March. The A319CJ competes with other ultralarge-cabin corporate jets such as the Boeing 737-700-based Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) and Embraer Lineage 1000, as well as with large-cabin and ultralong-range Gulfstream G650, Gulfstream G550 and Bombardier's Global 6000. It includes a full glass cockpit rather than the hybrid versions found in previous airliners. [11][28][29] The length increase required the overwing exits of the A320 to be enlarged and repositioned in front of and behind the wings. In June 1977 a new Joint European Transport (JET) programme was set up, established by BAe, Aerospatiale, Dornier and Fokker. Following a merger, "ACJ Analysis" Business & Commercial Aviation Magazine – July 2002, Page 44, impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on aviation, Competition between Airbus and Boeing § Airbus A320 vs Boeing 737, Escadron de Transport, d'Entraînement et de Calibration, List of Airbus A320neo family orders and deliveries, List of accidents and incidents involving the Airbus A320 family, Pakistan International Airlines Flight 8303, "US Airways' final flight closes curtain on another major airline", "A320 has repaid faith of Airbus – and governments", "La transformation des modes d'action de l'État à travers l'histoire du programme Airbus", "AIRBUS AIRCRAFT 2018 AVERAGE LIST PRICES* (USD millions)", "A320 launch and first delivery of A300-600", "Air France: launch customer of the A320", "More than 80 orders for the planned A320", "How Is An Aircraft Built > Final Assembly And Tests", "Tianjin becomes eastern cousin of Toulouse", "Airbus inaugurates Hamburg's fourth A320 Family production line", "Airbus A320, A220 Evolution Considered As Mobile Expands", "Airbus inaugurates new A320 structure assembly line in Hamburg", "A320 family embarks on approach to 10,000 deliveries", "More aircraft production rate cuts coming? 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